The role of the tourism industry in the balance of payments of countries is an important industry because of its benefits such as regional development and employment. Tourism industry as a product of sea, sand, sun, nature, natural resources, as well as the benefit of the tourism industry in consideration of attractive effects such as waste, environmental erosion, cultural conflict can be said to have negative effects. However, if tourism enterprises take the necessary measures, the negative effects can be minimized or even eliminated and sustainable tourism can be realized. In order to minimize the negative impacts of tourism industry, tourism enterprises applying various criteria are given certificates from associations such as the European Union. Tourism companies use these certificates for advertisement and promotion purposes as well as increasing the efficiency of the company with the administrations they apply to get these certificates. In this context, the aim of the study is to examine the eco-friendly practices of accommodation establishments within the framework of sustainability in the context of Agenda 21 criteria. To this end, the impact of environmental- friendly strategic applications of Rixos Sungate, which operates in Antalya destination on the sustainability and profitability of the Hotel, has been examined. According to the results, green and eco-friendly Rixos Sungate has high awareness among tourists. Therefore, these Hotels have the advantages of sustainable competition. These Hotels also have a positive impact on destination sustainability.
Keywords: Sustainability, Agenda 21, tourism, Rixos Sungate 1. Introduction
Millions of people visit different destinations throughout the year to get new experiences, experience new experiences and get new impressions. The tourism industry, which makes a significant contribution to the economy and development of a country and which is a highly profitable industry, continues to have this feature today (Dwyer and Mistilis, 1999; Rogers, 2008). However, tourism also has significant positive and negative impacts on economic, social, cultural and environmental destinations in Hotels and tourists generally visiting accommodation (Cooper et al., 2008).
The most important sub-sector of the tourism industry, Hotel businesses in terms of tourism and travel in terms of environment and resources as a product that uses the most (Trung and Kumar, 2005). The Hotel sector may have a negative impact on the environment, society and the economy, especially with food waste and solid waste. Therefore, various standards and programs have been developed to minimize the potential negative effects of Hotels. Some are mandatory by regulations, while others are for awards and awareness given by non- governmental organizations. It can be said that the Hotels have green stars, blue flags, ecolabels and the awards they have received, and they have increased the efficiency and attract the green-friendly tourists.
The primary criteria for the destination selection of tourists seeking sunshine include sea, sun and beaches (Claver-Cortes et al., 2007; Munoz, 2007); however, the primary criteria for the selection of destinations for green tourists are the natural environment, habitats and historical sites with green tourist criteria. Although several theorists and academicians have studied sustainability management for tourism destinations (Chon and Mayer, 1995; Minguzzi 2006) and the role of local authorities, tourists, and local people on the sustainability of destination (Crouch and Ritchie, 1999; Dwyer and Kim, 2003; Hassan 2000), few studies have focused on the role of businesses in both destination and enterprises’ own sustainability (Ritchie and Crouch, 2003). Therefore, the primary objective of the study is to examine the scope of Agenda 21, which has criteria such as waste management, recycling, etc. examines the importance of sustainability. In this study, the possible positive and negative effects of tourism and sustainable tourism literature are summarized. Afterwards, Rixos Sungate’s activity in Antalya is examined as a case study on the sustainability and profitability of its environmentally friendly strategic applications within the scope of Agenda 21.
2. Review Potential Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism Industry
The possible positive and negative effects of the tourism industry can be economic, social, cultural and environmental. In the literature, there are some studies about the positive and negative effects and various measures. The main purpose of this study is to examine the applications of Rixos Sungate within the scope of the Agenda 21 criteria developed to minimize these effects and to ensure sustainability.
2.1. Possible Economic Effects of Tourism
Although tourism has been an important part of our lives for a long time, the effects of the tourism sector both in the world and in the country economy in the age of the crisis that is being experienced on the scale of the country and world show itself more concretizing. On the other hand, realizing the potential economic benefits of increased travel, such as employment, contribution to regional and Regional Development, wage and tax revenues, has resulted in the intensification of tourism development activities of many countries, states and local communities (Kumar and Hussain, 2014). The economic impact of tourism is positive and negative in Isskeep (1988), Thomas (1990), Smith (1992) and Priestley et al. Table 1 summarizes Table 1 based on the studies of 1996.
|Public investments for conservation and restoration of cultural resources||Increase of competition in labor force and land prices|
|Increase of state revenues||Decrease in foreign exchange reserves as a result of tourism enterprises using imported products instead of local products|
|Job and employment creation||The economic benefit of tourism abroad as a result of international investments|
|Increase of national currency reserve||Increasing prices in local products and services|
|Increase in local people’s earnings||Loss and exploitation of resources|
|Tourism’s revitalization of other sectors||Increase in imports tendency|
|Encouraging entrepreneurs to invest||Seasonalization of production|
|The clustering of tourism in a certain place and the economic equilibrium disorder in other places|
As shown in Table 1, there are also negative economic effects as well as positive impacts of Tourism. To reduce these impacts, strategies and policies for Hotels should be developed and implemented.
2.2. Potential social and cultural effects of Tourism
The ability of the tourism industry to employ jobs is one of the most important reasons for encouraging the development of tourism in countries. Direct employment occurs in areas such as Hotels, transportation companies, travel agencies, tourist destinations, tour guides, government offices and tour operators (Leiper, 1979). On the other hand, the concentration of workers coming from outside is decreasing and the sector is being brought to the labour force from abroad. Therefore, the effect of tourism on the employment of local people are attacking. Foreign tourists ‘ foreign exchange earnings and the balance of payments due to the importance of the more preferred, domestic tourists on the 2nd. class citizens create a sense of person not preferred in their own country. Similarly, the privileged opportunities offered for the top income tourists constitute psychological pressure on the local population. In this context, the social impact of tourism on the positive and negative of Inskeep (1988), Thomas (1990), Smith (1992) and Priestley et al. Table 2 summarizes the studies based on the studies of the ’(1996).
|Awareness of local people about resource protection||Transportation, shopping and crowded tourist areas caused by tourism|
|The culture of the local people can be proud of||Presentation of local clothing, art and handicrafts to tourists and their disappearance and commercialization over time|
|Cultural exchange between local people and tourists||Increasing show effect, especially on young individuals, increasing Show effect on clothing, behavior and lifestyle|
|Gaining mutual understanding and respect||Prioritization of beaches and other places for the presentation of tourists|
|Solving ideological and religious obstacle problems||Misunderstandings between local people and tourists due to language, value system and legal differences|
|The road to tourism is the benefit of local people from infrastructure like water||Increase in drug and crime rates|
As outlined in Table 2, despite the positive effects of tourism, there are possible negative effects to society. In order to reduce these negative impacts, especially non-governmental organizations offer various applications for Hotels and can contribute to the advertisement and promotion of Hotels with certificates / awards. Table 3 shows the possible positive and negative cultural effects of Tourism.
|Increasing demand for local and traditional handicrafts||Loss of artifacts due to corrupt vendors|
|Increasing demand for traditional music and dance||Cultural resources to museums|
|Traditional festival, the revival of cultural and artistic activities||Change of cultural geography, for example, the disappearance of traditional farming|
|Starting to use minority languages||Change of language’s letters since Western words start to use|
|Increase the importance of religious activities||Increasing number of tourists and the concentration of religious places and shrines|
|Increase of food varieties||Decreases in religious practices|
|Changing family structure and values|
|Local people start to serve tourists normally|
|The increase of immorality and prostitution|
|Increased crime rate|
Table 2 and 3 can have a more negative impact on the social and cultural context of tourism compared to the positive. Therefore, it is important to develop and implement social and cultural strategies and policies for Hotels.
2.3. Possible Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Places covering areas such as national parks are often seen as the basis of nature-based experience. Tourists have the opportunity to explore protected areas and observe wildlife closely (Ritchie and Crouch, 2003). Hotel Enterprises interact with nature in a variety of ways to provide services to tourists. As a result of this interaction, Hotels can harm the natural environment (Kirk, 1995). Swarbrooke (1999) stated in previous research that tourism can be seen as an economic activity that produces a variety of positive and negative effects. However, Sustainable Tourism aims to provide the best balance between economic benefits and social and environmental costs. Table 4 provides some of the effects of tourism on the environment.
|On the natural environment||On building environment|
|Water pollution by sewage or discharge||Differences between touristic and traditional buildings|
|Noise Pollution Caused by Tourism Activities||Change in character in the land through development|
|Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions||Overloading infrastructure|
|High landslide risk||Increasing the number of people|
|Damaged areas due to pollution|
|Depletion of non-renewable fuel sources|
|Excessive use of biological resources|
|Depletion of mineral resources for the building|
|Change in land use in agriculture|
|Deforestation by collecting firewood|
As shown in Table 4, tourism has a significant negative impact on the environment. These effects harm society and resources. Sustainable use of Natural Resources should be considered as an important product for the tourism industry. For example, the destruction of agricultural lands can cause problems in meeting the food needs of Hotels, and the destruction of water resources can cause problems in meeting the water needs of Hotels.
3. Sustainable Tourism Destination and Entrepreneurs
The concept of sustainability has been discussed by academics for many years and has been adapted to the tourism industry. Some researchers (Butler, 1991; Clarke, 1997; Liu, 2003) conducted important research on the evolution of sustainability and sustainability in terms of the tourism industry. The concept of sustainable tourism has emerged as a result of the need to develop sustainable tourism in destinations, according to Lee (2001). There is no universally acceptable definition of a sustainable tourism destination because it is a unique feature of each destination. Therefore, sustainable development can vary in every destination (Lee, 2001). Sustainable tourism is defined as a tourism that addresses the needs of businesses, visitors, local people and the environment and takes full account of its future and present economic, environmental and social impacts.
According to Buhalis (2000), there are four criteria for implementing sustainability-based tourism strategies. These are local people; local governments responsible for the administration of destination; businesses producing services and visitors. It can be said that local people, local governments, businesses and visitors are responsible for the sustainability of tourism destination. Sustainable tourism has developed different sustainability models for tourism destinations by academics, such as definitions of sustainable tourism destinations. Many researchers (Kirk, 1995; Revilla vd, 2001; Chan and Mak, 2004); Mensah, 2006; Erdoğan and Barış, 2007) defined and reviewed environmental management issues in terms of their business. Some criteria for successful environmental management have also been developed. The United Nations has discussed sustainability criteria in detail and adopted an action plan called Agenda 21. The role of the tourism industry in the development of sustainable tourism is to promote sustainable tourism in the tourism industry by protecting the environmental, economic and socio-cultural benefits of sustainable tourism destinations (UNEP, 2005). Environmental practices are explained in Agenda 21 Action Plan (Kahramanlı and Türkay, 2006). The Agenda 21 Action Plan for “travel and Tourism” has some criteria for Hotels. These criteria;
- Waste reduction and recycling,
- Energy efficiency and effective management,
- Freshwater water management,
- Waste water management,
- Dangerous substances,
- Land Management,
- Cooperation between employees, local people and tourists for sustainability activities,
- Regulation of sustainability,
- Environmental sustainability projects
4. Research Method
For the above purpose, Hotel enterprises operating in Antalya province were evaluated using sustainability indicators. After evaluating Hotels in terms of sustainability, an eco-friendly Hotel was chosen. This Hotel is located in the Kemer area of Antalya, Rixos Sungate Hotel. Rixos Sungate’s eco-friendly applications were evaluated using the sustainability criteria of the Agenda 21 Model. In January 2019, interviews were held with the executives of the Rixos Sungate Hotel. As a result of these analyses and interviews, the role of Hotel Enterprises in destination sustainability and the importance of Hotel Enterprises in destination sustainability were revealed. The Hotel’s applications are classified according to Agenda 21 criteria. Finally, there are some important applications and recommendations to raise the awareness of Hotel businesses and visitors.
Rixos Sungate Hotel is located in the 250 thousand square meter area of Beldibi. It is 25 km from Antalya city center and 50 km from Antalya airport. It has 1094 rooms, including suites and villas. Hotel with private bathrooms and handicapped hypoallergenic rooms are available. The Hotel also has a conference center with a capacity of 6 thousand people, 15 meeting rooms, 1 Amphitheatre, 3 Congress rooms and 1 cinema room. In 2018, Rixos Sungate was
awarded the Europe’s best luxury sport Hotel Award and QM Management Awards for “Turkey’s Best Managed Entertainment Hotel”. Rixos Sungate has been awarded a “Certificate of Excellence” by Tripadvisor. In the awards given by marketing Turkey, Rixos Sungate received a bronze award in 2018 and a silver award in 2017 among the best tourism companies that use social media. Hotel global Hotel security standard of SafeHotels alliance has been awarded a certificate. “Global climate change” training was given at the Hotel based on the “life in water” topic (sungate-tr.rixos.com (see)).
5.1. Rixos Sungate Hotel Sample
Waste reduction and recycling collected
The Rixos Sungate Hotel has an “ISO 14001 environmental management” certificate. According to the Environmental Studies survey conducted in September within the scope of ISO 14001 standard, 47,83% of the guests stated that Rixos Sungate Hotel has knowledge of environmental protection activities and 65,22% wanted to stay in an environmentally sensitive facility and 30,43% did not see any errors in Environmental Protection activities. The Environmental Consultant of the Hotel, Fatma Baştuğ, gives the personnel ‘environmental legislation in tourism facilities’ and ‘waste management training’. In the ‘hand-to-hand’ brochures in the rooms, in order to support recovery, dispose of your waste in suitable waste buckets in our general areas.’ is expressed in the form. There are recycling bins in the public areas in different colors.
Current energy efficiency and effective management
By the Hotel, personnel are periodically trained to ensure that environmental awareness is increased, environmental measures and action plan is implemented. The personnel were trained by Erhan Abacı, the Technical Manager for energy saving. Gür Işık energy consultancy company conducted Energy Information training. Personnel are trained in the efficient and efficient use of the appliances used in the kitchen and technical departments of the Hotel. Hobart company trained personnel on the efficient and accurate use of kitchen equipment. In the case of opening doors and windows in the rooms, the ventilation is closed automatically. The rooms have central air conditioning with heat adjustment. When room temperature reaches the desired level, it stops automatically. The rooms are equipped with a card system. When there is no card, the energy in the rooms stops automatically, and when the card is switched on, the energy system in the rooms becomes active. Rooms with: room telephone, direct telephone, shower and WC, private bathroom, radio, television, satellite TV, air condition, mini bar, safe box, hair dryer, balcony, radiator.) high efficiency and low electricity consumption technology is provided. Rooms feature LED TVs. SM 40 model mini- cooler EU directive 643/2009/EC and en 62552 standard energy consumption according to experimental conditions energy consumption value is 0.94 kWh/ 24 hours (annual consumption 343 kW). Rooms are equipped with LED lighting fixtures. Minibars and TVs are located away from the sun.
Central Water Management
Personnel have been trained by our technical service in the determination and Prevention of water leak. There is a perator in the taps in the general area and rooms. Thus, 50%-70% water saving can be achieved. The taps are photocell. In all rooms and in public areas, the reserves are in two levels. There are a variety of reservoirs that can provide water flow or stop water flow. In a place where the guests can easily see the rooms, the environmental sensitivity studies are announced in written and audio-visual format. In order to prevent unnecessary water, electricity and detergent use, guests are asked to leave the sheets on the bed when they do not want to change the sheets. In both public and guest rooms there are visual images of water saving.
Waste Water Management
The eco-friendly cleaning products used in the Hotel save water. The Hotel uses rainwater to irrigate the garden.
The operation personnel are trained in the use of detergents and Disinfectants in their packages or boxes and in the use methods. Diversey has been trained in chemical use by HK and Steward departments separately. Products produced from natural raw materials and packaging recyclable are preferred.
The ‘handelete for the environment’ brochure in the rooms states that guests can reach both my Hotel and the nearby historical and touristic places by public transport. Customers use buggy cars within the Hotel. These buggy cars don’t pollute nature.
The Hotel has 2200 pine trees. Endemic plants are protected and artificial fertilizers are not used. The Hotel flora and fauna according to the plant list does not use artificial fertilizer to prevent spoilage of the ecosystem. The rates of the drugs are monitored and protected in accordance with the spraying plan. The cat house is built for cats in the Hotel. Maintenance and nutrition are provided. Rabies, parasites and mixed vaccine were given to the Cats in the Hotel and the health card was removed. Antalya Kemer Municipality non-resident pets temporary maintenance House monthly dry food assistance is provided.
Cooperation between employees, local people and tourists for sustainability activities
Together with the personnel, the Beldibi coastal garbage collection activities are carried out. By participating in environmental awareness and environmental awareness trainings organized by Muratpaşa Municipality Environmental Protection and control unit, support was given to the ‘Green Pen’ project carried out by the unit. Awareness Day for PKU’s disease was organized and families met at the Hotel. 53. Sponsored the Antalya golden orange award. When guests arrive at the reception, the environmental brochure is distributed about the environmental practices in the Hotel and what the guests can do to protect the environment. Training and activities are carried out about the environmental awareness for child guests. Rixy club includes environmental information articles and brochures. In order to increase environmental awareness, children in the Rixy club are trained at regular intervals. Flowers, tree planting and this awareness to them to make them love the flowers using the items that flourish together, activities are performed. Guest rooms have warning stickers about saving water and disposal of toilet paper in the trash can. Warning signs are available at room door entrances indicating that smoking is not allowed in the rooms and smoking on the balcony. In order to ensure sustainability, the Hotel must provide all staff and guests with a participation. This effort will allow guests to act with the same environmental sensitivity as when they return home.
The Regulation Of Sustainability
The Hotel has an eco-friendly accommodation facility certificate. The seed found behind the pen distributed at the end of environmental training is planted in the soil when the pencil is reduced. As seeds, plant seeds such as laughter flowers, rockets, parsley, basil can be used. With the participation of Kemer Municipality and Hotel staff, Beldibi beach cleaning is done.
Environmental Sustainability Projects
Rixos Sungate Hotel, “Environmental Social Responsibility ” is always to make improvement, development and sustainable projects. Rixos Sungate Hotel continues its projects with AR & GE studies for a more sustainable tourism activity.
Tourism activities are generally based on nature and environment to protect the environment of tourism enterprises, is important for sustainability. Although tourism enterprises provide benefits to the environment, society and economy, they can also cause various damages. Therefore, Hotels need to implement some environmental practices in order to minimize losses. The above example of Rixos Sungate Hotel is one of the best examples in Turkey for environmental applications. Rixos Sungate Hotel is aware of the relationship between environmental activities and profitability. The Hotel has important fresh water and waste water management. As a result of water management, water saving is provided. Thus, the Hotel minimizes water costs. In addition to minimizing water costs, they can increase occupancy rates and reduce environmental damage by using environmentally friendly products and applications. The implementation of environmental activities increases the sustainability of the destination. Hotels as tourism enterprises should be aware of their role in the sustainability of destination. To use environmentally friendly products in Hotels, to implement waste management and recycling activities and to adopt environmental management system, Hotels can make their destinations more sustainable. Thus, destination awareness and Hotels ‘ profits and occupancy rates may increase among tourists. In future studies, a survey can be carried out for tourists in a Hotel like Rixos Sungate.
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