(PhD.Student, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan & Rixos President Astana, General Manager, firstname.lastname@example.org)
The industrialization process has started the evolve fourth time with the new generation of information and communication technologies. Since the tourism industry is a dynamic industry that is rapidly adapting to innovations and new technologies, Industry 4.0 technologies have rapidly started to apply in the tourism industry. For this reason, hotel enterprises have also started to be influenced by Industry 4.0 technologies such as Internet of Things, near field communication, global positioning systems, beacon, sensors and mobile applications. At the heart of the Industry 4.0 era, there are advanced technological developments such as robots managing robots. The concepts such as smart tourism, smart hotel, smart guidance has emerged with the Industry 4.0. However, in the hotel sector, there is very limited study on how to implement Industry 4.0 technologies and how to integrate hotels into technologies that are developing rapidly. Especially in waste management, which is one of the most important elements of the hotels, almost no studies have been conducted the use of new generation technologies on waste reduction. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify the potential usage areas of new generation technologies in the kitchen, restaurant, front office, etc. to develop smart waste management in hotel enterprises and to give advice to the hotel sector.
Keywords. Industry 4.0, Smart Waste Management, Hotel Enterprises
Since the industrial revolution, computers have started to occupy an important place in human life and have become almost indispensable in human life. People often use computers to make their life and work more easier. Today, it is in the fourth industrial revolution triggered by the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Industry 4.0 is intelligent automation of technology-based and cyber-physical systems. The term Industry 4.0 was first used at the Hannover fair in 2011 . Although human-computer interaction can have negative effects such as dismissal in the life of those who do not develop or use computer technologies, human- computer interaction continues with the development and use of robots .
Robotization, Internet of things, artificial ıntelligence, sensors, cognitive technologies, nanotechnology, services of the Internet, quantum computing, wearable technologies, augmented reality, smart signaling, smart robots, big data, 3D and smart networks technologies lead to the fourth industrial revolution called Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 technologies have started to change business environments and lifestyles by using them rapidly in the fields of doing business, communication and education.
Nowadays, robots can be used to serve customers in hotel departments and to assist employees in their tasks . The tourism industry is rapidly adapting and using technological developments. Therefore, the tourism industry can use the Internet at maximum levels. For example, visitor information, visitor needs, visitor email addresses and phones are stored by the tourism industry.
In addition, businesses operating in the tourism industry can collect information about the sector through social media accounts. This means a large amount of data. The big data of the tourism industry can be used for promotion, marketing, competing and following trends . This big data can be collected in the restaurant, kitchen, front office and used for waste management purposes. Operational efficiency and waste reduction are the two most innovative functions of smart waste management system in hotels. Therefore, in order to increase operational efficiency and reduce waste, hotels should use new generation technologies. The aim of this study is to determine the potential usage areas of the new generation technologies in the kitchen, restaurant and front office departments of hotels. For this purpose, suggestions were made to the managers.
INDUSTRY 4.0 AND SMART TOURISM
The term industrialization generally refers to the process of replacing manpower with machinery . Fossil fuels have played a special role in the process of industrialization. Fossil fuels have brought tremendous productivity in the First (coal) and Second Industrial Revolution (oil) and have changed technological and economic conditions in terms of transport, production and consumption . The First Industrial Revolution took place in England in the last three months of the 18th century. The invention of the steam engine and the replacement of manual labor triggered the transition to more capital-intensive production methods. The Second Industrial Revolution developed in the United States in the 1860s and 1890s . This time, business areas began to shift from manufacturing to services . The Third Industrial Revolution is the integration of Internet technology with renewable energy . The Third Industrial Revolutio is focused on adaptive services and digital production. The Third Industrial Revolution has aimed to increase productivity in mass personalization (especially the integration of services and manufactured goods) and to use computer and communication technologies that can work for months and are mostly connected to brain power . The Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) is a new Industrial revolution that incorporates smart digital technologies and advanced production and operation techniques to create a digital enterprise that can communicate, analyze and use big data, bringing more smart action to the physical world .
The term ‘smart’ has entered the literatüre with Industry 4.0. Smartness conceptualized as the use of real-time and real-world data, data integration, data sharing, and the use of complex analytical modeling, optimization, and visualization to make better operational decisions . Technologies in the smart tourism system are components of information systems that provide correct information, better decision support, greater mobility and ultimately higher quality tourism experiences to visitors and service providers . Internet technology and new generation technologies have helped to develop the smart tourism industry . Recently, great efforts have been made to use big data and augmented reality technology for smart tourism. Big data analysis is used to support visitor decision making, to develop tourism brand strategies and to support visitor participation .
The concept of smart tourism derives from the term ‘smart planet’ proposed by IBM in 2008 and later developed with the development of smart cities. Smart tourism has three main components. These elements are smart experience, smart business ecosystem and smart destination . Smart tourism defined as a government reform based on the new generation of information and communication technologies and emphasized that it aims to provide personalized, high quality and satisfactory services to the visitors as well as providing sustainability for tourism and social resources . In addition to the development of smart tourism, information and communication
technologies can be seen as the key to conceptualization. Smart tourism concentrates on value creation, platform building and personal and widespread information services .
INDUSTRY 4.0 AND SMART HOTELS
For developing smart tourism Internet of Things technologies such as smart hotel management system , smart ticket (card) system , smart remote video monitoring system, smart tour guide system  and smart travel agency the system is used . The Internet of Things and sensors installed in / around the hotelcan collect significant amounts of internal and external data such as availability of facilities, tourist location, weather, road conditions and airport traffic. While this information does not directly affect the experience of tourists, it affects the overall impression and satisfaction of tourists . Table 1 shows the area recommendations for Internet of Things in a hotel.
|Area||Technology / Sensor||Characteristics|
Temperature Sensor Door Locking
|Energy management system and lighting in tourist room with movements|
Sound control of vehicles such as curtains, lighting and room temperature
Temperature control system for a comfortable environment Opening and closing doors through mobile applications
Determining the health status of tourists, especially in fitness rooms
|Restaurant/ Lobby||Position Sensor|
|Determining the location of the tourist|
Forwarding a ‘welcome’ message to the designated tourist
|Hotel Facilities||Availability Beacon||Send an availability message to hotel guests|
|Storage||Inventory Label||Tracking the inventory location, determining expiry date and stock level|
|Ensuring energy efficiency by providing control according to the internal temperature of the building|
Lighting adjustment system by measuring daylight
|Road||Traffic Sensor||Parking and traffic control|
|Social Network||Content Sensor||Social network system that monitors hotel social networks and provides feedback to managers|
Ok et al.  proposed a model sent to the smart device at the time when guests room information and digital key are booked directly through the room application (app). Thus, visitors do not have to wait for check-in upon arrival and can go directly to the room allocated for them and open their doors with their own mobile devices. The smartphone can also be used in the room to control certain features such as lighting, heating and TV. The HUB hotel in Covent Garden in Londra is one of the first examples of smart hospitality. From the booking process, physical control over check-in, room access, room service and room environment / experience (TV, temperature, lighting, etc.) is controlled via the downloadable HUB application. The app also provides information about nearby points of interest. This recently passed new concept has been successful and has proven the importance of the potential of using Industry 4.0 technologies. This smart tourism application provides full control to visitors, although it may be seen as negative by some visitors with some technology phobia and reduced physical contact between tourist and staff .
Hotel managers expect to increase service quality  while reducing the time and manpower spent on operations by using technologies . On the other hand, hotel guests want to search more quickly and effectively  for the best room rate . However, due to the dynamic changes in the political, economic, social and technical environment, only in-business data cannot provide accurate forecasting and pricing strategies. Effective revenue management and accurate revenue estimation require both out-business data and big data . An smart network fails without sensors and markings. Internal sensor technologies can help hotel managers to monitor ongoing operational activities inside and outside the hotel . With the smart hotel network, revenue management activities can be supported by big data, thus increasing the accuracy of forecasts .
USAGE AREAS OF NEW GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES IN SMART WASTE MANAGEMENT
The main priority of waste management applied in hotel establishments is prevention, subsequent reduction and the realization of evaluation activities. It is particularly important for hotel businesses to evaluate waste to reduce waste, optimize storage areas and cost. Therefore, smart management proposals regarding wastes are also handled by departments. Within the scope of the study, usage areas related to NFC, GPS, Beacon, new generation Bluetooth Beacon, smart applications (app), artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, virtual reality, augmented reality, big data, 3D printers and robotization have been examined. Smart waste management practices identified in this scope are as follows;
- Many innovative applications can be developed for purchasing and kitchen departments, such as storing food at the desired rate in the hotel business, preventing spoilage by monitoring food or identifying wastes that can be recycled by using the Internet of Things technology.
- Unlike traditional waste management systems with smart waste management systems, efficiency is achieved with more rational decisions. In terms of hotel kitchen and storage, it may be possible to make this part of smart refrigerators or other devices’ smart waste management systems,
- Many innovative applications such as stimulating systems, artificial intelligence and recyclable waste recyclables can be implemented by the integration of other smart products used by the hotel management.
- Smart sensors to prevent waste water in the gardens and green areas of the hotel can determine the moisture content of the soil. Thus, the plants can be given enough water just in time. Thus, plant and waste water losses can be prevented,
- Guest data such as age, nationality, gender can be collected and big data can be created and food and beverage consumption can be determined through algorithms in line with reservations. Because with this big data collected, analyzes can be made and preferences of eating and drinking can be determined in advance. When the consumption preferences of the guests according to demographic characteristics are determined with big data, food wastes can be reduced more intelligently. Similarly, with this big data, guests preferences in bars can be determined and wastes in bars can be reduced,
- With an application developed for the hotel, guests can be directed in the hotel through messages transmitted via the beacon to guests at certain times. Thus, the intensity can be reduced during peak hours.
- Digital communication can be provided between the sensors that measure the occupancy rate of the food containers in open buffets and the kitchen department to prevent the extra offerings of the same products in buffets. Similarly, with the Internet of Things, smart systems that monitor the temperature of the food containers in the buffet and automatically activate heating and cooling can be extended the storage time of the remaining food in the hotel buffet.
- By collecting data on which food types are allocated as waste at buffets during the day, this big data can be analyzed with algorithms and food wastes can be reduced in other years,
- Data on the preparation, cooking, preparation for service and disposal of food in the kitchen should be collected. Because with the big data obtained, control and reduction of these wastes can be achieved. With the help of these big data collected and algorithms, automatic menus for the kitchen department can be created by artificial intelligence to provide waste reduction. Thus, waste reduction can also be achieved during food preparation and cooking.
- In the kitchen, food storage areas and buffet areas, sensors can measure humidity and temperature and, where necessary, the systems can be activated with the Internet of Things. Thus, food waste can be reduced due to ambient conditions such as humidity and temperature,
- By sensors, monitor the weight and internal temperature information of the main garbage and waste storage areas of the hotel, values can be transmitted to the central server and the time of waste collection can be determined via the Internet of Things. With the new generation technologies, it is possible to send direct messages to the collector companies. In this way, costs can be reduced and efficiency can be achieved in the hotel business. Automatic warning messages can be forwarded to related departments with ultrasonic level sensors that can be installed in general waste and waste collection area,
- Waste compacting boxes working with Internet of Things software and solar energy can be placed in the guest usage areas within the hotel,
- Automatic waste compaction can be realized with Internet of Things technology for waste bins used in kitchens, restaurants and bars,
- Smart TVs in hotel rooms can contribute to children waste adn recycling education by providing games such as ‘waste sorter’ for children. Applications that offer children’s recycling education in a fun format can be included in various areas of the hotel,
- Housekeeping is responsible for the cleaning of laundry and general usage areas, using a significant amount of energy, water and cleaning chemicals in the hotel. The activities of housekeeping related to wastes primarily include saving energy and water, then collecting, sorting and taking the wastes from the rooms to the floor office. Costs can be reduced by monitoring the use of textile materials such as sheets and towels used in the hotel via the Internet of things, big data, artificial intelligence technologies,
- The energy status of the battery and electric of vehicles used in the hotel can be measured with sensors and automatically informed to the technical department with the Internet of Things technology.
The industrial revolution that emerged in the 1800s has evolved three times with new technologies and innovations that have evolved over the years. Although the first revolutions were developed primarily for wars, they have found application in every industry over time. However, Industry 4.0 and new generation technologies have directly affected all sectors and technology is now the key to competitive advantages. Tourism industry is also an industry that is rapidly affected by technology and adopts new technologies rapidly. Therefore, Industry 4.0 technologies have started to be used in tourism enterprises. Hotel businesses have started to adapt to these technologies. The goals of using the new generation technologies in hotel businesses include increasing productivity, increasing guest satisfaction and reducing costs. In this study, potential usage areas of new generation technologies in hotel managements have been determined especially in the scope of waste management.
As tourism is a sector that is rapidly affected by technological developments, hotel businesses should adapt to the new generation technologies developing with Industry 4.0. Particularly because generation Z is intensely involved in the tourism movement, adapting to new generation technologies is important for competitive advantage. Hotels can use big data and Internet of Things technologies in the context of waste management. For example, a system to be established with artificial intelligence between the big data and the demographic characteristics of guests and the amount of buffet waste has the potential to reduce the rate of food waste. With the help of algorithms and big data collected in the kitchen department, automatic menus can be created by artificial intelligence to provide waste reduction. Thus, waste reduction can also be achieved during food preparation and cooking. Sensors can be measure humidity and temperature in the kitchen, food storage areas and buffet areas and systems can be activated with the Internet of Things when the necessary.
The study was based on literatüre review. Detailed study can ben done by in-depth review with hotel managers and department managers to reveal the how new generation technologies can be used in waste management.
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